What is FMEA ?

Failure mode effects analysis (FMEA) is a technique often utilized in product/process design and development to determine the primary hazards associated with a given proposed design or existing system to be redesigned/optimized.  The approach involves assuming a basic defect/failure/malfunction at the component level, assessing the impacts or effects of the failure, and identifying potential solutions to the problem. 

A crucial step is anticipating what might go wrong with a product. While anticipating every failure mode is not possible, the development team should formulate as extensive a list of potential failure modes as possible.

There are several types of FMEAs, some are used much more often than others. FMEAs should always be performed for engineered systems whenever failures would mean potential harm or injury to the user of the end item being designed. The types of FMEA are:

  • System – focuses on global system functions
  • Design – focuses on components and subsystems
  • Process – focuses on manufacturing/Service industry and assembly processes
  • Service – focuses on service functions
  • Software – focuses on software functions
  • Software – focuses on software functions

An extension of traditional FMEA is failure mode effects and criticality analysis (FMECA).  The criticality aspect of the analysis adds a weighting of hazard severity coupled with hazard probability and/or probability of failure.  In FMECA, the criticality factor is calculated from the predicted failure severities and probabilities by the expression:

Criticality = Severity * Probability

Failure modes with the highest criticality factor are the most applicable candidates for design review procedures or redesign. 

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Great discription Kapil
Thank you for sharing